New Cold War in Outer Space: U.S., China and Russia Launch Space Race

Powers strengthen space competition for geopolitics and enter outer space
China successfully launched the Long March 5B rocket, tested the prototype of the new spacecraft and returned the cargo to the capsule, an important step towards the establishment of a space station

China successfully launched the Long March 5B rocket, tested the prototype of the new spacecraft and returned the cargo to the space capsule, taking an important step towards the establishment of a space station.
China successfully launched the Long March 5B rocket, tested the prototype of the new spacecraft and returned the cargo to the capsule, an important step towards the establishment of a space station
On May 5, China successfully launched the Long March V-B rocket, testing the prototype of the new spacecraft and returning the cargo to the capsule. Reports say this is an important step for China to establish a space station and eventually establish a base on the moon.
On the same day, US media reported that the Trump administration was planning to work with "like-minded" countries to develop a space legal framework that regulates moon mining. Russia reported that the US approach violated the outer space treaty signed during the Cold War.
The Guardian reported that China’s ambition to become a space power has prompted space agencies in other countries to regain interest in the moon. The United States, India, Japan and Russia are all developing their own lunar exploration plans.

While the United States emphasizes the establishment of international norms for space conduct, the United States and its allies have also been concerned about the threat of space defense. Experts from America suggested using both military and diplomatic forces during the Cold War to contain emerging space challenges.
Chang'e-4 probe launched by China is the first probe to land softly on the back of the moon

China's space rise

On Tuesday (May 5), China launched the Long March 5B carrier rocket to carry out the test of transporting a new manned spacecraft and flexible inflatable return cargo compartment. The 54-meter-long March 5B rocket with a take-off weight of 849 tons pushed a spaceship that could carry six astronauts into space. Chinese media reported that China's manned space program has entered a substantial stage of establishing a space station.
China uses the Long March 5 series of rockets to launch high-orbit and low-orbit large satellites, spacecraft, and manned space station capsules. According to the plan, China will use the new spacecraft to send astronauts to the space station deployed before 2022.
Chinese media reported that China’s first Mars probe will be launched with the Long March 5 rocket in the second half of this year. Before the end of the year, the Chang'e 5 lunar probe was also launched with the Long March 5 rocket, sampling on the moon and returning to the earth.
In 2019, China sent the spacecraft to the back of the moon to land. At present, efforts are being made to send astronauts to the moon and China also plans to establish a permanent base on the moon.
Over the past 20 years, China has rapidly expanded its presence in outer space. Since China began to formulate a manned space program in 1992, China has successfully carried out more than ten major outer space launches and successively sent 11 astronauts into space.
The United States and NATO see Russia and China's anti-satellite capabilities as the main threat in outer space

Regulate outer space

Considering that China will continue to increase its presence in outer space and play a greater role in the future, American think tank experts believe that the United States must formulate corresponding response plans to curb China's space impact and seek cooperation to implement outer space control.
Frank A. Rose, an expert on security and strategy and diplomacy at the Brookings Institution, said in an article published in April that the United States should strengthen dialogue with China in the field of civilian space in the face of a sharp increase in Chinese activities in outer space, Looking for solutions to the problems of orbital debris, space traffic management, and giant satellite clusters.
On the same day that China successfully launched the Long March 5B carrier rocket, Reuters reported that the Trump administration was drafting a legal blueprint for regulating lunar mining activities. The United States plans to reach an agreement with "like-minded" countries in space mining.
Sources told Reuters that in the next few weeks, US officials will discuss with Canada, Japan, European countries and the UAE the regulation of lunar mining and the establishment of a "moon safety zone" around the future lunar base.
Russia, an important NASA partner on the International Space Station, was not included in the initial list of negotiating partners. The source said that because the Russian manipulating satellites in Earth orbit is a threat to the US spy satellites, it is hostile to the Pentagon. Obviously, China is not among the "like-minded" countries.
Russian reports indicate that the United States above-mentioned approach seems to violate the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which prohibits all countries from having rights to any part of the celestial body other than Earth. Moscow has repeatedly criticized Washington, saying that the United States wants to turn space into a "barbaric west", militarize outer space, and attempt to acquire territory on other planets.
The US Department of Defense believes that both China and Russia regard space as an integral part of modern warfare. China and Russia have also accused the United States of instigating a new space arms race.
Supported by economic strength and aerospace technology, China plans to establish an Earth-Moon Economic Zone by 2050
Supported by economic strength and aerospace technology, China plans to establish an Earth-Moon Economic Zone by 2050

Space military competition

The US Department of Defense believes that both China and Russia regard space as an integral part of modern warfare. China and Russia have also accused the United States of instigating a new space arms race.
The US Defense Intelligence Agency released a report last year that listed China and Russia’s ability to threaten other countries in space as a challenge and threat to the United States. The report believes that both China and Russia regard space as an important part of modern warfare, and regard space countermeasure capabilities as a means to reduce the military effectiveness of the United States and its allies.
The outer space capabilities of Russia and China have improved the command and control capabilities of their troops worldwide, allowing them to monitor and track the military targets of the United States and allies. The U.S. Department of Defense intelligence agency believes that China and Russia ’s space reconnaissance network can search and track satellites in orbital space, and are developing signal interference and cyberspace capabilities, directed energy weapons and orbital space capabilities, and land-based development of Anti-satellite missile.
The NATO defense ministers met in June last year and passed a space policy document. The specific details were not disclosed. Brookings Institution's strategic expert Ross wrote on April 22 that at the NATO summit in London last December, NATO leaders emphasized the importance of facing future challenges in outer space and maintaining technological leadership.
Ross suggested that NATO continue the "dual-track policy" of the Soviet bloc during the Cold War, that is, use both defense and diplomacy, and use arms control as an integral part of the containment strategy. Although the Trump administration generally opposes arms control, it is open to establishing codes of conduct in outer space. Therefore, while NATO actively strengthens its defense capabilities, it also needs to use diplomatic means to solve the threat of outer space, such as letting allies speak out in formulating a code of conduct for outer space.
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