What Happened Today, May 13 in History?

What happened today May 13, in history: Attack on pope John Paul II (1981), German Nazi sink Mexican oil tank, Mexico is invaded by American troops, An earthquake shakes Chile, Ecuador becomes an independent nation, Ezer Weizman assumed the presidency of Israel, Paul Doumer assumed the presidency of France, Gary Cooper passes away.

Attack On John Paul II (1981)

On this day in the history; May 13, 1981, an unexpected event shocked Catholics around the world.
Attack On John Paul II (On this day in the history; May 13, 1981)

On this day in the history; May 13, 1981, an unexpected event shocked Catholics around the world. That Wednesday afternoon, in keeping with his custom of cultivating a close relationship with his faithful, Pope John Paul II went out to greet those who gathered in the Plaza de San Pedro to see him. On his way to the tribune of the plaza, several shots were fired at the pontiff, who was seriously injured in the abdomen and arm. The attack was perpetrated by a 23-year-old Turkish man, Mehmet Ali Agca, who was captured. JohnPaul II was taken to the Gemelli hospital where he was practically bled to death. After a long intervention, the doctors managed to save his life, although the pope would suffer the consequences of the attack until his death. Three years later, John Paul II met with Alí Agca in the Rebibbia prison.

Source: The History Channel Iberia, BV: "John Paul II. The Pope from the Iron Curtain", in The Great Characters of History. Barcelona, ​​Plaza and Janés, 2012, pp. 558-573.

Sinking of the Mexican Oil Tanker by the German Nazi (1942)

On this day in the history; El Potrero del Llano was the first Mexican oil tanker, torpedoed and disabled (not entirely sunk), by the German submarine U-564 type VII C commanded by the lieutenant Reinhard "Teddy" Suhren at 23:55 hours on May 13 From 1942, this fact led Mexico to abandon its neutrality and enter World War II.
Sinking of the Mexican Oil Tanker by the German Nazi (1942)

On this day in the history; El Potrero del Llano was the first Mexican oil tanker, torpedoed and disabled (not entirely sunk), by the German submarine U-564 type VII C commanded by the lieutenant Reinhard "Teddy" Suhren at 23:55 hours on May 13 From 1942, this fact led Mexico to abandon its neutrality and enter World War II. Built in England in 1912 and baptized FATamplin, in 1921 it changed its name to Arminco and in 1929 to Lucifero. It was seized from Italy in April 1941 and renamed Potrero del Llano in honor of one of the most productive oil farms in the State of Veracruz. He sailed from south to north along the Florida coast with all the lights on and had a huge Mexican flag painted on the hull, both port and starboard, with his name and that of the country. The U-Boat commander reported that he had observed the colors of the flag but without the shield (as was the norm on Mexican merchant ships), so he confused it with the Italian flag; strange thing since Italy was part of the Axis: Berlin, Tokyo and Rome.

Ecuador becomes an independent nation (1830)

On a day like today, in the year 1830, after a period of political instability triggered by the process of independence from Spain, the Department of Ecuador officially withdrew from Greater Colombia to form the Republic of Ecuador. 

After its process of independence, the Ecuadorian people were attached to Gran Colombia, a country created in 1819 with the union of Venezuela and New Granada, to which Panama, Quito and Guayaquil later joined.

However, the internal struggles within Greater Colombia and the disagreements between federals and centralists separated Ecuadorians from the Bolivarian project, which was signed in an act signed by an Assembly of Notables in Quito.

Thus, on May 13, 1830, the Department of Ecuador became an independent State, the Republic of Ecuador, governed by General Juan José Flores, of Venezuelan descent, as Supreme Head of the Government.

 In exercise of his functions, Flores called a Constituent Assembly that issued the first National Constitution, on September 22, 1830, proclaiming the consolidation of the departments of Azuay, Guayaquil and Ecuador in an independent State.

Mexico is invaded by American troops (It happened on this day 1846)

Mexico is invaded by American troops (It happened on this day 1846)
Mexico is invaded by American troops (It happened on this day 1846)

On a day like today, in the year 1846, after the first confrontation between US and Mexican troops, north of the Rio Grande, at the request of then President James K. Polk, the United States Congress declared war on Mexico.

The American intervention in Mexico originated as a result of the expansionism of the United States, which first created the Republic of Texas, annexed after its separation from the Mexican state of Coahuila and Texas.

The United States demanded compensation from the Mexican government for the damages generated during the Texas War of Independence, and sent military troops to the region established between the Nueces and Bravo rivers.

After landing in Veracruz, US soldiers occupied the capital of Mexico and forced the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which annexed the prolific territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the territory of the United States.

Thus, Mexico ceded more than half of its territory, with the US annexation of the current states of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado and portions of Arizona, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma.

An earthquake shakes Chile (In the history on this day 1647)

On this day in the history; The tranquility of the city of Santiago de Chile is interrupted on May 13, 1647 by a fierce earthquake. The disaster occurs shortly at 10:30 p.m., while many of the inhabitants sleep at home. It is estimated that it had an intensity of 8.5 degrees on the Richter scale. Most of the buildings in the city, built with adobe and mud, collapse or crack at the ferocity of the earthquake. 600 of the 4,000 inhabitants of Santiago die and the colonial authorities must undertake the almost complete reconstruction of the city. In the weeks following the disaster, a typhus epidemic strikes survivor, bringing the total death toll to 2,000.

Paul Doumer assumed the presidency of France (History of today in 1931)

On this day in the history; Paul Doumer was a French politician president of the Republic of France during May 13, 1931 and the year 1932.
Paul Doumer assumed the presidency of France (History of today in 1931)

On this day in the history; Paul Doumer was a French politician president of the Republic of France during May 13, 1931 and the year 1932. He received his first teachings in Paris and in 1867 he entered an engraving workshop as an apprentice, where he worked until 1871, combining work with studies. Later he devoted himself to teaching and later took the title of law degree. He began his political career in the French newspaper Courier de l Aisne, and shortly afterwards was editor of the newspaper La Tribune de l Aisne, with tendencies close to the Radical Party. In 1885 he served as municipal councilor. Three years later he was appointed deputy and in 1889, despite not having been re-elected, Floquet, who was president of the Chamber, took him as secretary. In 1891 he was elected deputy. Between 1895 and 1896 he held the ministerial portfolio of the Treasury.

Ezer Weizman assumed the presidency of Israel (1993)

On this day in the history; Ezer Weizman is a general-in-chief of the air force, a politician, nephew of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, and current president of the State of Israel, who took office on May 13, 1993 and resigned in July 2000.
Ezer Weizman assumed the presidency of Israel (On this day 1993)

On this day in the history; Ezer Weizman is a general-in-chief of the air force, a politician, nephew of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, and current president of the State of Israel, who took office on May 13, 1993 and resigned in July 2000. He began his long military career as a pilot during World War II, joining the Royal Air Force in 1942. At 18 years old, Weizman maintained a high, and sometimes very provocative, public profile, even while serving in the military. In the two and a half decades that followed his retirement from the military career, he held key political positions, as Defense Minister, and led the electoral campaign that brought Belarusian leader Menachem Beguin to power in 1977, as Prime Minister of Israel.

Gary Cooper Passes Away (1961)

On a day like today in 1961, the life of one of the most charismatic actors in American cinema, Gary Cooper, died out. He began his career as a supporting actor in Westerns until 1926 when Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer offered him his first outstanding role in The Flower of the Desert, succeeding each other ever since. Married to the also actress Verónica Balfe, he had several romances among which the best known was with his co-star in El manantial, Patricia Neal. The naturalness of his interpretations together with the character of the protagonists he used to embody, almost always simple men with strong principles and somewhat naive, earned him the affection of the public. Throughout his career he played unforgettable roles under the orders of directors such as Billy Wilder, Howard Hawks, Ernst Lubitsch and Frank Capra.


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